When the theory of evolution was first advanced by Charles Darwin in the middle of the 19th century, it was not taken so seriously. The ideological meaning of the theory, however, caused it to become wide-spread in a short time. This ideological meaning lied with the theory of evolution coming forth as an alternative to the belief of creation, which constitutes the essence of all divine religions. Atheist, materialist and positivist movements immediately claimed ownership of Darwin’s theory and began to use it as a propaganda tool against the religious beliefs. It was discovered in the 20th century that the theory is in fact a complete fallacy and is not based on any scientific evidence. The evolutionist propaganda, however, did not cease.
The Birth Of Darwinism
Darwinism originated with the book of Charles Darwin, an amateur biologist, titled The Origin of Species published in 1859. In this book, which he defined as a “long argument”, Darwin argued that all living species have a common ancestor and they evolved from one another by means of natural selection.
Darwin argued that, by natural selection, only the individuals that adapted to the habitat in the best way transferred their qualities to subsequent generations. These advantageous qualities accumulated in time and transformed the individual into a species totally different from its ancestors. Man was the most developed outcome of this mechanism. Darwin thought he had found the “origin of species”: the origin of one species was another species.
However, Darwin was unaware of the science of genetics when he advanced his theory.
While the echoes of Darwin’s book reverberated, an Austrian botanist by the name of Mendel discovered the laws of inheritance in 1865. Not much heard of until the end of the century, Mendel’s discovery gained great importance in the early 1900s. In the first quarter of the 20th century, the structure of the genes and the chromosomes was discovered.
These developments were in fact refuting Darwin’s “long argument”. Nevertheless, those who were determined to follow Darwin somehow revised the theory of evolution, which fell out of favor because of the science of genetics. Consequently “The Modern Synthetic Evolution Theory” was put forward in 1940. According to this theory, the cause of the variations in Darwin’s theory, in other words, the power that supposedly caused living organisms to evolve, was “mutations”.
This neo-Darwinism, however, was not enough to save the theory of evolution. Each development in genetics dealt new blows to Darwinism and neo-Darwinism. The discovery, in the 1950s, of the structure of the DNA molecule that incorporates genetic information threw the theory of evolution into a great crisis.
Imaginary Mechanisms of Evolution
The Neo-Darwinist model argues that the origin of evolutionary modifications are random mutations that take place in the genetic structure of living beings. The traits brought about by the favorable mutations are selected by the mechanism of natural selection and therefore the living things evolve. According to this model, as a result of the accumulation of the beneficial features which bring advantages to the living being in its habitat, these modifications, after a while, take such a form that they can even cause the being to change in species. The living being that undergoes evolution “promotes” from a certain species to a more advanced species.
Therefore, the neo-Darwinist approach, which we shall take as the “mainstream” theory of evolution today, puts forward two basic mechanisms to explain how living beings evolved: “natural selection” and “mutation”. Either mechanism, however, has the capacity to make a living being evolve into another being.
Does Natural Selection Have Evolutionary Power?
According to the theory of evolution, the magical mechanism that formed the first living beings, that brought together the first single-celled organisms, that taught the eye to see, that developed organs such as hand, foot, ear and kidney, that inspires birds to migrate to thousands of kilometers away every year is natural selection. It is absolutely impossible for a mechanism such as natural selection that lacks consciousness and wisdom to accomplish all these things. On the other hand, it is also scientifically established that natural selection does not have the power to cause living beings to evolve and to equip them with new features.
Natural selection holds that those living beings that are stronger and more suited to the natural conditions of their habitats will prevail. For example, in a zebra herd under the threat of lions, naturally those that can run faster will survive. But survival of fast running zebras will not transform these zebras into another living species, for example into horses. Natural selection only selects out the disfigured, weak, or unfit individuals of a species. It cannot produce new species, new genetic information, or new organs.
Stephen Jay Gould, Harvard paleontologist and a world-wide famous evolutionist, refers to this deadlock of natural selection as follows;
The essence of Darwinism lies in a single phrase: natural selection is the creative force of evolutionary change. No one denies that natural selection will play a negative role in eliminating the unfit. Darwinian theories require that it create the fit as well.1
However there has not been a single shred of evidence observed showing that natural selection causes living beings to evolve. Colin Patterson, a British paleontologist, who is also a prominent evolutionist by the way, acknowledges this fact as follows:
No one has ever produced a species by mechanisms of natural selection. No one has ever got near it and most of the current argument in neo-Darwinism is about this question.2
Why Can’t Mutations Cause A Living Being To Evolve?
We have stated above that the neo-Darwinist theory presented natural selection and mutation as two complementary mechanisms. After examining the invalidity of the first part of this bilateral mechanism, that is natural selection, we can now examine mutations.
Mutations are defined as breaks or replacements taking place in the genetic information. They affect the DNA molecule, which is found in the nucleus of the cell, and modify its structure.
When the structure of DNA is studied, it is clearly understood that random effects can only cause harm to such a complex mechanism. Consequently, mutations do not have the ability to cause a living being to make progress by evolving. Researchers expert on this subject confirm this opinion. B.G. Ranganathan states:
First, genuine mutations are very rare in nature. Secondly, most mutations are harmful since they are random, rather than orderly changes in the structure of genes;any random change in a highly ordered system will be for the worse, not for the better. For example, if an earthquake were to shake a highly ordered structure such as a building, there would be a random change in the framework of the building, which, in all probability, would not be an improvement.3
Mutations result in irreversible damages and the organism whose genetic structure is modified, depending on the extent of the genetic damage, undergoes changes that cannot be pre-estimated. If the damage caused by the mutation has happened in the reproductive cells of the organism, it is also transferred to the next generation. Eventually, random mutations cannot transform a living organism into a more advanced form and into another creature. They only cause harm to that being or cause its death. All hereditary diseases such as cancer, anemia, and Down syndrome are the results of mutations.
The Deadlock of Intermediate Transitional Forms
Despite all the researches conducted and all the expenditures made in the last 150 years, no evidence to support the theory of evolution has yet been uncovered. However, if evolution had really taken place, millions of evidence should have been found.
These “evidences” that the evolutionists should have found in millions are the fossils of beings called “intermediate transitional forms”. According to the evolutionary theory, living beings have evolved from each other. For example, according to this claim, man evolved from apes. Since this evolutionary period did not last only one day, but millions and even hundreds of millions of years, millions of half ape-half man creatures should have existed. The same principle applies also to transition from water to land or from land to air. Millions of half fish-half reptile or half reptile-half bird creatures should have lived. These “fantastic” creatures that allegedly display transformations in the evolutionary process are called intermediate transitional forms.
If evolution had occurred, hundreds of thousands of these transitional forms should have reached our day by being fossilised.
This is the deadlock of evolution: evolutionists have been making feverish investigations in order to find the fossils of these transitional links for more than a century, however there is not even a single trace of the fore-mentioned transitional forms. Some confessions of the evolutionists on the subject are very striking. For example, the famous nature scientist A. H. Clark says, “Since we have not the slightest evidence, either among the living or the fossil animals, of any intergrading types following the major groups, it is a fair supposition that there never have been any such intergrading types.”4
After confessing that there is no such thing as transitional form, Richard B. Goldschmidt, a well-known geneticist and evolutionist goes on to accept that the species “emerged suddenly” by saying, “In the fossil record, all present animal species emerge suddenly without any known transitional forms.”
Evolutionists also accept the meaning of the absence of transitional forms. Living things emerged “suddenly” and it is evident that to “emerge suddenly” means to be created.
The fact that living beings emerged “suddenly”, that is the fact that they were created, however, are unacceptable to evolutionists because of “ideological” reasons. Although some scientists, whose statements are quoted above, admit this, evolutionists in general do not accept the fact that “no intermediate transitional forms exists”.
There is only one thing the evolutionists do against the absence of transitional forms. They find fossils of some extinct species that lived millions of years ago and claim that these fossils are “transitional forms”. These so-called transitional forms are presented to the whole world as “great evidences to evolution”. However, none of the several living beings presented as transitional forms by the evolutionists bear such a quality and this reality has been unveiled in the course of time.
Fossil Whose “Living” Prototype Is Found
For example a fish called Coelacanth (Rhipitistian Crossopterigian), which was presented as an extinct living species that disappeared 70 million years ago and shown as the transitional form from water to land by the evolutionists, was found alive in the coast of Madagaskar in 1939 to the great astonishment of the evolutionists. The same fish was later caught nearly fifty times in the open seas and it was seen that its inner ear alcoves, head typed backbone, and swimming pouch, which are the organs which caused it to be presented as a transitional form, did not at all carry qualities that would cause the being to be called as a “transitional form”. Furthermore, this fish, which was introduced as “a reptile candidate getting prepared to pass from sea to land”, was in reality a fish that lived in the depths of the oceans.
Imaginary Ancestor Of Birds
The second living being presented as a great evidence by the evolutionists was a 135 million year old fossil of a bird named Archaeopteryx. Because of its claw-like organs on the edge of its wings, small teeth and backbones in its tail, this animal was presented by the evolutionists to be a “transitional form from reptiles to birds”. But in the following years, a 225 million year old bird fossil was found in the Western Texas desert in 1984 which refuted this claim. This animal called Protoavis was a complete bird although it was 75 million years older than Archaeopteryx which is claimed to be the “ancestor of birds”. Besides, the claw-like paws of Archeaopteryx, which caused it to be designated as a transitional form, do not mean anything neither. Today, a bird species living in South America called Opisthocomus Hoatzin has similar paws.
These claims of the evolutionists definitely collapsed against the fossil of Archaeopteryx found in 1997. In this fossil, the “sternum”, that is the chest bone, which is utterly peculiar to birds and enables flight actually existed. This discovery invalidated the claims of evolutionists that Archaeopteryx was a half-bird / half-dinosaur, but verified that it was a flying bird in the real sense.
In addition to this, the fossil of a bird has been recently unearthed in China, which lived in a much earlier period than Archaeopteryx and had the complete features of a modern bird. According to the discovery that was announced by famous scientific magazines such as Science and Nature, this 220 million-year-old bird shared the same features as today’s birds. Even evolutionist publications announced this discovery saying “The ancestor of birds proved to be a bird; not dinosaurs”.
As evolutionists were unable to find even a single fossil to prove evolution which they allege to have continued for millions of years, they decided to produce them themselves. Through television, press and textbooks, they deceived millions of people by producing false evidence which they pretended to have acquired after a long research. Here are some of these frauds:
1- Piltdown Man Fraud
A British researcher, Charles Dawson came out with an assertion that he had found a jawbone with two teeth and some cranial fragments in South England in 1912. The jawbone was more ape-like, and the skull was like a man’s. It was thought to be an important evidence of human evolution. Alleged to be 500 thousand years old, the fossil was displayed in British Museum for 40 years.
It could be revealed only in 1949 that this was indeed a big evolution forgery. In 1949, Kenneth Oakley from the museum’s paleontology department tried the method of “fluorine testing”, a new test used for determining the date of some old fossils, on the jawbone and the skull. The result was astounding. The jawbone had remained buried no more than a few years. The skull was only a few thousand years old. This showed that the fossils were unearthed from different locations, were brought to Piltdown, and that the jawbone and the skull by no means belonged to the same creature.
It was clearly a forgery. Moreover, it was determined that that the primitive tools—alleged to be discovered with the fossils by C. Dawson—were simple imitations that had been sharpened with steel implements. The joints of the jawbone had been filed in order to conceal the difference between the jawbone and the skull. The two teeth in the jawbone had been worn down artificially.
Another forgery of Charles Dawson was to stain the fossils to give them a dated appearance. In 1953 the researches of Le Gros Clark and J.S. Weiner from the Anatomy Department of Oxford University, on the skull and the jawbone revealed that the fossils had been artificially stained with a chemical (potassium dichromate). These stains began to disappear when dipped in acid.
In the chemical analysis made in 1953 to precisely date the bones, scientists discovered that Piltdown Man was a huge forgery. The skull belonged to a modern man, and the mandibular bone belonged to a modern orangutan.
But evolutionists did not give up. They attempted to support the theory, which they wanted to prove no matter how, by committing further forgeries.
2- Nebraska Man Fraud
In 1922, based on a fossil tooth found in the USA, Nebraska, it was declared that this tooth had belonged to an intermediate creature between man and ape. For five years, this fossil was presented as an important evidence of evolution. Well known magazines and newspapers made imaginary drawings with the inspiration they drew from a single tooth. The Illustrated London newspaper even pictured Nebraska Man with his wife. However, in 1927, it was revealed that the fossil belonged to an extinct pig species!
All we have told so far are false evidences put forward by the evolutionists. However, all those experiences demonstrated that these false evidence were not of much use and that the reality is always uncovered in the course of time. For this reason, many evolutionists preferred smaller forgeries rather than venturing into such dangerous tricks.
“Reconstruction” drawings are an example to this deceit. When we look at evolutionist publications, we frequently come across with such drawings. In these drawings, half man-half ape figures are usually pictured along with their family. These creatures with hairy bodies, a bent posture, and a face in between a man and an ape are claimed to have been drawn by evolutionist scientists supposedly by relying on the fossils available.
However, these drawings bear no meaning, because the fossils found only yield information about the bone structure of the living being. Neither any information can be obtained from these fossils about the nose, the ears, the mouth, and the hair of the living being. However, in the drawings, the evolutionists depict the organs such as the nose, the mouth, and the ears shaped as half-man half-ape.
What have been told so far are only a few of the evidence proving the invalidity of the theory of evolution and that it is a non-scientific theory. All the facts proclaimed by modern disciples of science such as microbiology, biochemistry, and anatomy prove that the world of living things has an extremely complex structure and that even the simplest living being has outstanding features that could in no way come into being by chance. In addition to invalidating the coincidence theories of evolutionists, these developments also point out a crystal-clear fact: the fact that life is the work of an intelligent design and God has created it flawlessly.
1. Stephen Jay Gould, “The Return of the Hopeful Monsters,” Natural History, vol. 86, July-August 1977, p. 28.
2. Colin Patterson, “Cladistics,” Interview with Brian Leek, Peter Franz, March 4, 1982, BBC.
3. B. G. Ranganathan, Origins?, Pennsylvania:The Banner of Truth Trust, 1988, p. 12.
4. A. H. Clark, The New Evolution, Zoogenesis Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1930, p. 196.